The Anal cancer is the cancer in the anal region.
Cancer is a result of genetic mutation which converts the healthy, normally functioning cells into abnormal cells.
The growth and multiplication of the normal cells is fixed and definite but the cancerous cells multiply abnormally and grow out of control, thus leading to the accumulation of cells which turn to form tumor. These cells even spread or metastasize to different regions or organs later.
Causes of Anal Cancer
The exact anal cancer cause is unknown meaning the reason behind this genetic mutation leading to anal cancer is not known clearly but certain risk factors which increase the chances of developing this anal cancer are identified.
Some of the risk factors are your age, as women have a high risk of developing anal cancer this may also be one of the risk factor, having many sexual partners, anal sex, smoking and HPV virus infection are some of the other chances of developing anal cancer
The anal cancer treatment directly depends on the stage of the cancer. The most common methods of anal cancer treatment are chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In very few cases the method of anal cancer treatment is also surgery.
The extensive surgery method of anal cancer treatment was considered the only option few days back. But today the methods have changed keeping in mind to preserve the bowel conditions of the patients which is not possible through surgery.
Anal Cancer Treatment: Chemotherapy
The type of anal cancer treatment which uses the drugs is called chemotherapy in which very high doses with regular intervals of time are induced into the patients body either orally or through injections. This method of anal cancer treatment aims to kill the rapidly growing cancer cells.
The method of anal cancer treatment in which high powered beams, such as X-rays are used to kill the rapidly spreading cancer cells is called radiation therapy. The duration for this radiation therapy is about 5-6 weeks.
During this treatment the chemotherapy is also administered to ensure better cure and survival rate. But as such any of these treatments have their own side effects which need to be discussed before undergoing any type of anal cancer treatment.
Usually two methods of surgery are followed for treating the anal cancer depending on its stage.
For early stage anal cancer patients the surgery involves the removal of small anal cancer tumors which haven’t spread yet to any other surrounding region. During this anal cancer treatment a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be followed.
For advanced anal cancer patients the doctor will go for an advanced method of surgery which involves the removal of anus, rectum and a part of colon too. This type of surgery is been referred to as abdominoperineal resection or AP resection.