The colon cancer treatment mostly depends up on the stages of your cancer. The mostly used treatment involves three types
They are: surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For colorectal cancer, surgery is the main treatment.
Colon cancer treatment by surgical procedures:
It involves the removal of your colon that is affected by cancer. It also involves the removal of the margins of the tissue on other side of the cancer to ensure the total removal of cancer. The lymph nodes are removed to test for cancer.
The healthy portions of rectum and colon are reconnected by the surgeon. But, in some cases when it is not possible if the cancer is at the outlet of the rectum, then you may have the temporary or permanent colostomy.
This makes an opening into the abdomen for the elimination of the waste into a special bag. In case of temporary colostomy, the rectum and colon needs time to heal after the surgery.
Side effects of colon cancer surgery include temporary constipation, short-term pain, tenderness and diarrhea. The irritation of the skin around the opening develops due to the colostomy.
Colon cancer treatment by surgery: the surgery involves removal of rectum and colon from your body with inherited syndromes such as inflammatory bowel disease or familial adenomatous polyposis to prevent the cancer in future.
A small pouch is attached to the anus from the end of small-intestine by the surgeon during a procedure known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. It is used to eliminate the waste and make easy for watery bowel movements several times a day.
Early- stage cancer surgery involves the small bit of cancer, localized in the polyp to be removed completely by the colonoscopy method. If the polyp dose is not attached to the base of the bowel wall then it is indicated that the cancer is eliminated completely.
Laparoscopic surgery is done in case of large polyp. Several small incisions are made in the abdominal wall in order to take the lymph node samples that drain the area where cancer is present.
Advanced-stage cancer surgery is done if you are having cancer in advanced stage. Operation is done to relieve the colon from blockage and to improve the symptoms.
It is referred as palliative surgery. This surgery cannot cure cancer but it can relieve the pain, signs, bleeding and symptoms.
Chemotherapy is done after the surgery to relieve the colon cancer symptoms and to control the tumor growth. But the side effects include diarrhea, fatigue, vomiting, hair loss, nausea and mouth sores.
Radiation therapy is used to kill the cancer cells that remain after surgery by using the powerful sources like the x-rays. It is also used to relieve the pain and symptoms of rectum and colon.
It is used along with chemotherapy after surgery to reduce the cancer that reoccurs in the areas of rectum. Side effects include loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, rectal bleeding and fatigue.
Drug therapy consists of three drugs those target specific defects. The drugs are cetuximab (Erbitux), panitumumab (Vectibix) and bevacizumab (Avastin). These are administered along with chemotherapic drugs or alone.
Therefore, the above methods are used for colon cancer treatment.